If my organization is ISO 27001 certified, does that mean that we are HIPAA and HITECH compliant by default? What are the differences between the standards?
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ISO 27001 is a collection of information security management best practices published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Organizations may choose to voluntarily adopt ISO 27001 and, if they wish, become ISO 27001 certified through an initial audit with follow-up compliance audits to maintain this certification. The requirements and associated audit scope for an ISO 27001 assessment cover information security best practices as broadly applied to an organization.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) on the other hand, is a set of regulations that governs how covered entities manage the security, privacy and exchange of protected health information (PHI).
HIPAA differs from ISO 27001 in two major ways. First, ISO 27001 may be used to assess the information security practices of any scope of activities an organization conducts. HIPAA, on the other hand, relates specifically to regulated healthcare activities, and the covered entity has no discretion in determining the scope. Second, ISO 27001 only covers information security practices. HIPAA's Security Rule covers a similar range of controls, but HIPAA-covered entities must also comply with the Privacy Rule and the Electronic Data Interchange Rule -- two subjects ISO 27001 does not address.
The bottom line is that ISO 27001 compliance and/or certification will certainly help your HIPAA compliance efforts by providing a solid basis of information security practices. However, it is not sufficient to ensure ongoing compliance with the specific controls the HIPAA rules require.
This was first published in April 2013