Spear phishing and social engineering are becoming more popular as attackers target humans as a particularly dependable point of ingress (HBGary, RSA, etc.). Considering that a well-crafted spear phishing email is almost indistinguishable from a legitimate email, what is the best way to prevent users from clicking on spear phishing links?
Phishing, social engineering and spear phishing have been growing in popularity over the last 10 or more years. The introduction of spear phishing and other newer forms of phishing are an evolution of social engineering or fraud. Attackers have found ways to exploit weaknesses in technologies like VoIP, IM and SMS messages, among others, to commit fraud, and will continue to adapt as new technologies develop. Humans will always be an integral part of information security for an organization, but can always be targeted, regardless of the technologies in use. Humans are sometimes the weakest link.
To help minimize the chance of a spear phishing attack successfully infiltrating the enterprise, you can follow the advice from US-CERT on phishing or the guidance from the Anti-Phishing Working Group. Both have technical steps you can put in place, but both also include a security awareness and education component. Potentially the most effective method to combat phishing and its variants is to make sure users know to question suspicious communications and to verify the communication (email, IM, SMS, etc.) out-of-band with the requesting party. For example, if an employee gets an email from a colleague that doesn’t sound like it came from the sender or seems in some way suspicious, he or she should contact the sender using a different means of communication -- such as the phone -- to confirm the email. If the email can’t be verified, then it should be reported to your information security group, the Anti-Phishing Working Group or the FTC at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Enterprises with high security needs could choose not to connect their systems to the Internet, not allow Internet email inbound except for approved domains, or only allow inbound email from approved email addresses. This will not stop all phishing attacks and will significantly decrease usability, but may be necessary for high-security environments.
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