Security expert Bruce Schneier dragged an uncomfortable but very real possibility into public view during RSA Conference 2017, and it should have developers of all types pondering a very grim future full of software regulations.
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Schneier discussed his case for internet of things (IoT) regulation in not one but two sessions at RSA Conference 2017 last week. The growing potential for IoT regulations are hardly a surprise given the run of recent high-profile DDoS attacks using insecure IoT devices. And while Schneier’s support for IoT regulations may have surprised some, he made a well-reasoned case that government action is coming whether the technology industry approves or not and IT professionals would be well-served by taking an active role in the process to ensure the government enacts the least-bad option.
Within one of those RSA Conference sessions, Schneier urged the audience to think more broadly about the responsibilities of developers in a “connect it all” world.
“We need to start talking about our future. We rarely if ever have conversations about our technological future and what we’d like to have. Instead of designing our future, we let come as it comes without forethought or architecting or planning. When we try to design, we get surprised by emergent properties,” Schneier told the audience. “I think this also has to change. I think we should start making moral and ethical and political decisions about how technology should work.”
Schneier then made another point that went far beyond simple IoT regulations and had chilling implications for the technology industry.
“Until now, we have largely given programmers a special right to design [and] to code the world as they saw fit. And giving them that right was fine, as long as it didn’t matter. Fundamentally, it doesn’t matter what Facebook’s design is,” he said. “But when it comes to “things,” it does matter, so that special right probably has to end.”
First, Schneier is obviously right. Facebook’s software design affects a very large but finite number of people, and they can choose to stay on or leave the platform; whatever programming sins it may commit won’t extend to users at Microsoft or Google or other companies. A connected physical device, however, can extend outside of Facebook’s user base and affect others. To this point, we’ve gotten off easy by only having to contend with potent DDoS attacks and data breaches. But the possibility of physical harm from hacked IoT devices is certainly in play.
That doesn’t make the possibility of general software regulations any easier to swallow, however. The idea that programmers could lose the right to code what they want and how they want seems as incomprehensible as the government suddenly regulating what I write as a journalist. While the latter scenario is clear violation of the Constitution, the former probably isn’t (more on that in moment).
I don’t know if Schneier truly believes that software developers should have their rights curbed by the government, or if his aim was to spark concern – and potential action – from the audience. Maybe it was both.
But is Schneier’s idea – that unfettered freedom for programming should be replaced with software regulations – really that far-fetched? Consider the aggressive measures proposed in Congress regarding the “going dark” issue and encryption technology. And keep in mind it was the judiciary and not lawmakers that ordered Apple to design a tool to hack its own security protections for iOS. (At one point before achieving a legal victory in this case, Apple was reportedly preparing an argument that its code was protected as speech under the First Amendment, which would have be fascinating to see.)
I mostly agree with Schneier’s argument that government regulation is coming whether we like it or not. There seems to be little incentive — and even less desire — for the industry to solve these IoT security problems. Perhaps that will change as IoT-related attacks become more common and more powerful this year. But perhaps not; the fact that manufacturers have allowed outdated connected medical devices to linger with known vulnerabilities gives me little confidence.
What would these regulations look like? During the question-and-answer session, Schneier was asked about whether certifications, either for individuals or for technologies, could address some of the concerns about connected devices leading to physical harm. Schneier said government-regulated certifications or licenses for software developers were a possibility.
“You had to be a licensed architect to design this building,” Schneier said, referring to the hotel at which the session was hosted. “You couldn’t be just anybody. So we could have that sort of certification – a licensed software engineer.”
I’m neither a structural engineer nor a programmer, but this seems like a bad idea. There aren’t that many ways to design a structurally sound building relative to the vast number of ways a programmer could design a perfectly sound application. The complexity of software doesn’t lend itself to the kind of regulation we see with building codes, for example. Even if the codes for coding, so to speak, were straightforward and tackled only the no-brainers – Thou shalt not use SHA-1 ever again! – there is a haystack’s worth of questions (backward compatibility, support, enforcement, etc.) that need to be answered, with no guarantee of actually getting to the desired needle.
If we accept a world in which a hypothetical government agency dictates what devices can and cannot be connected to the internet and how they are connected, it’s worth asking now what it will mean in the coming years for potentially broader, sweeping software regulations. It’s possible the Trump Administration’s stated commitment to roll back federal regulations will buy the IT industry some time before such a future is realized.
On the other hand, we’re one bad headline away from Congress enacting knee-jerk legislation to police not just how IoT devices are built and connected but how developers write and deploy code across the entire digital realm. And unlike journalists, programmers may have nothing in the Constitution to prevent it.