Data breaches Definitions

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  • B

    black hat

    Black hat refers to a hacker who breaks into a computer system or network with malicious intent. A black hat hacker may exploit security vulnerabilities for monetary gain; to steal or destroy private data; or to alter, disrupt or shut down websites and networks.

  • bot worm

    A bot worm is a self-replicating malware program that resides in current memory, turns infected computers into zombies (or bots) and transmits itself to other computers. A bot worm may be created with the ultimate intention of creating a botnet that functions as a vehicle for the spread of viruses, Trojans and spam... (Continued)

  • C

    CISO (chief information security officer)

    The CISO (chief information security officer) is a senior-level executive responsible for developing and implementing an information security program, which includes procedures and policies designed to protect enterprise communications, systems and assets from both internal and external threats.

  • computer exploit

    A computer exploit, or exploit, is an attack on a computer system, especially one that takes advantage of a particular vulnerability the system offers to intruders.

  • cookie poisoning

    On the Web, cookie poisoning is the modification of a cookie (personal information in a Web user's computer) by an attacker to gain unauthorized information about the user for purposes such as identity theft.

  • D

    data breach

    A data breach is a confirmed incident in which sensitive, confidential or otherwise protected data has been accessed and/or disclosed in an unauthorized fashion.

  • drive-by pharming

    Drive-by pharming is a vulnerability exploitation method in which the attacker takes advantage of an inadequately unprotected broadband router to gain access to user data... (Continued)

  • E

    extrusion prevention

    Extrusion prevention, also called exfiltration prevention, is the practice of stopping data leaks by filtering outbound network traffic and preventing unauthorized packets from moving outside the network. In contrast, extrusion detection simply alerts the existence of a problem that should be investigated.

  • I

    identity theft

    Identity theft, also known as identity fraud, is a crime in which an imposter obtains key pieces of personally identifiable information, such as Social Security or driver's license numbers, in order to impersonate someone else.

  • information security (infosec)

    Information security (infosec) is a set of strategies for managing the processes, tools and policies necessary to prevent, detect, document and counter threats to digital and non-digital information.

  • K

    keylogger (keystroke logger or system monitor)

    A keylogger, sometimes called a keystroke logger or system monitor, is a type of surveillance technology used to monitor and record each keystroke typed on a specific computer's keyboard.

  • N

    national identity card

    A national identity card is a portable document, typically a plasticized card with digitally-embedded information, that someone is required or encouraged to carry as a means of confirming their identity. Since the World Trade Center tragedy of September 11, 2001, many countries have discussed issuing national identity cards as a way to distinguish terrorists from the law-abiding population. (Continued)

  • P

    parameter tampering

    Parameter tampering is a form of Web-based hacking event (called an attack) in which certain parameters in the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or Web page form field data entered by a user are changed without that user's authorization... (Continued)

  • privilege escalation attack

    A privilege escalation attack is a type of network intrusion that takes advantage of programming errors or design flaws to grant the attacker elevated access to the network and its associated data and applications.

  • R

    Rock Phish

    Rock Phish is both a phishing toolkit and the entity that publishes the kit, either a hacker, or, more likely, a sophisticated group of hackers. While the authors of the kit remain anonymous, Rock Phish has become the most popular phishing kit available online, with some estimates suggesting that the kit is used for half of all phishing attempts.

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