Data security Definitions

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  • A

    Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

    The Advanced Encryption Standard, or AES, is a symmetric block cipher used by the U.S. government to protect classified information and is implemented in software and hardware throughout the world to encrypt sensitive data.

  • asymmetric cryptography (public key cryptography)

    Asymmetric cryptography, also called public key cryptography, uses a pair of numerical keys that are mathematically related to encrypt and decrypt data.

  • B

    black hat

    Black hat refers to a hacker who breaks into a computer system or network with malicious intent. A black hat hacker may exploit security vulnerabilities for monetary gain; to steal or destroy private data; or to alter, disrupt or shut down websites and networks.

  • block cipher

    A block cipher is a method of encrypting text (to produce ciphertext) in which a cryptographic key and algorithm are applied to a block of data (for example, 64 contiguous bits) at once as a group rather than to one bit at a time.

  • Blowfish

    Blowfish is an encryption algorithm that can be used as a replacement for the DES or IDEA algorithms.

  • bot worm

    A bot worm is a self-replicating malware program that resides in current memory, turns infected computers into zombies (or bots) and transmits itself to other computers. A bot worm may be created with the ultimate intention of creating a botnet that functions as a vehicle for the spread of viruses, Trojans and spam... (Continued)

  • C

    Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA)

    Certified Information Systems Auditor is a credential that demonstrates an IT professional's ability to assess risk and institute technology controls. The certification is intended for IT auditors, audit managers, consultants and security professionals.

  • cipher

    A cipher (pronounced SAI-fuhr) is any method of encrypting text (concealing its readability and meaning).

  • cipher block chaining (CBC)

    Cipher block chaining (CBC) is a mode of operation for a block cipher (one in which a sequence of bits are encrypted as a single unit or block with a cipher key applied to the entire block).

  • ciphertext feedback (CFB)

    Ciphertext feedback (CFB) is a mode of operation for a block cipher. In contrast to the cipher block chaining (CBC) mode, which encrypts a set number of bits of plaintext at a time, it is at times desirable to encrypt and transfer some plaintext values instantly one at a time, for which ciphertext feedback is a method.

  • CISO (chief information security officer)

    The CISO (chief information security officer) is a senior-level executive responsible for developing and implementing an information security program, which includes procedures and policies designed to protect enterprise communications, systems and assets from both internal and external threats.

  • cold boot attack

    A cold boot attack is a process for obtaining unauthorized access to encryption keys stored in the dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips of a computer system.

  • computer exploit

    A computer exploit, or exploit, is an attack on a computer system, especially one that takes advantage of a particular vulnerability the system offers to intruders.

  • Content Scrambling System (CSS)

    Content Scrambling System (CSS) is a data encryption and authentication method used to protect digital versatile disk (DVD) movies from being illegally copied, distributed, and viewed from other devices, such as computer hard drives.

  • context-aware security

    Context-aware security is the use of situational information (such as identity, location, time of day or type of endpoint device) to improve information security decisions.

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