Client security Definitions

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  • A

    antivirus software (antivirus program)

    Antivirus software is a class of program designed to prevent, detect and remove malware infections on individual computing devices, networks and IT systems.

  • B

    backdoor (computing)

    A backdoor is a means to access a computer system or encrypted data that bypasses the system's customary security mechanisms.

  • browser hijacker (browser hijacking)

    A browser hijacker is a malware program that modifies web browser settings without the user's permission and redirects the user to websites the user had not intended to visit.

  • brute force cracking

    Brute force (also known as brute force cracking) is a trial and error method used by application programs to decode encrypted data such as passwords or Data Encryption Standard (DES) keys, through exhaustive effort (using brute force) rather than employing intellectual strategies.

  • buffer overflow

    A buffer overflow occurs when a program attempts to write more data to a fixed length block of memory, or buffer, than the buffer is allocated to hold. Buffer overflow exploits may enable remote execution of malicious code or denial of service attacks.

  • C

    Crash Course: Spyware

    In general, spyware is any technology that aids in gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge.

  • E

    email spoofing

    Email spoofing is the forgery of an email header so that the message appears to have originated from someone or somewhere other than the actual source.

  • executable

    In computers, to execute a program is to run the program in the computer, and, by implication, to start it to run.

  • I

    identity theft

    Identity theft, also known as identity fraud, is a crime in which an imposter obtains key pieces of personally identifiable information, such as Social Security or driver's license numbers, in order to impersonate someone else.

  • K

    keylogger (keystroke logger or system monitor)

    A keylogger, sometimes called a keystroke logger or system monitor, is a type of surveillance technology used to monitor and record each keystroke typed on a specific computer's keyboard.

  • L

    LUHN formula (modulus 10)

    The LUHN formula, also called modulus 10, is a simple algorithm used to validate the number on a credit card.

  • P

    phishing

    Phishing is a form of fraud in which the attacker tries to learn information -- such as login credentials or account information -- by masquerading as a reputable entity or person in email, IM, or other communication channels.

  • S

    social engineering

    Social engineering is an attack vector that relies heavily on human interaction and often involves tricking people into breaking normal security procedures.

  • spyware

    Spyware is software that is installed on a computing device without the user's knowledge or permission.

  • T

    two-factor authentication (2FA)

    Two-factor authentication (2FA), often referred to as two-step verification, is a security process in which the user provides two authentication factors to verify they are who they say they are.

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