Hacker tools and techniques Definitions

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  • A

    alternate data stream (ADS)

    An alternate data stream (ADS) is a feature of Windows New Technology File System (NTFS) that contains metadata for locating a specific file by author or title.

  • attack vector

    An attack vector is a path or means by which a hacker (or cracker) can gain access to a computer or network server in order to deliver a payload or malicious outcome.

  • B

    black hat

    Black hat refers to a hacker who breaks into a computer system or network with malicious intent.

  • brute force cracking

    Brute force (also known as brute force cracking) is a trial and error method used by application programs to decode encrypted data such as passwords or Data Encryption Standard (DES) keys, through exhaustive effort (using brute force) rather than employing intellectual strategies.

  • bypass

    Bypass, in general, means either to go around something by an external route rather than going through it, or the means of accomplishing that feat.

  • C

    card-not-present fraud (card-not-present transaction)

    Card-not-present (CNP) fraud is the unauthorized use of a payment card to conduct a card-not-present transaction when the cardholder cannot or does not physically present the card at the time of the transaction.

  • cocooning

    Cocooning is the act of insulating or hiding oneself from the normal social environment, which may be perceived as distracting, unfriendly, dangerous, or otherwise unwelcome, at least for the present.

  • cold boot attack

    A cold boot attack is a process for obtaining unauthorized access to encryption keys stored in the dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips of a computer system.

  • cracker

    A cracker is someone who breaks into someone else's computer system, often on a network; bypasses passwords or licenses in computer programs; or in other ways intentionally breaches computer security.

  • Cybercrime

    Cybercrime is a criminal act involving a computer or device, such as a mobile phone or tablet; the device may be the target of the crime or used to commit the crime.

  • cyberextortion

    Cyberextortion is a crime involving an attack or threat of attack against an enterprise, coupled with a demand for money to avert or stop the attack.

  • cyberstalking

    Cyberstalking is a crime in which the attacker harasses a victim using electronic communication, such as e-mail or instant messaging (IM), or messages posted to a Web site or a discussion group.

  • cyberterrorism

    According to the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, cyberterrorism is any "premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data which results in violence against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents.

  • cyberwarfare

    Cyberwarfare is Internet-based conflict involving politically motivated attacks on information and information systems. Cyberwarfare attacks can disable official websites and networks, disrupt or disable essential services, steal or alter classified data, and criple financial systems -- among many other possibilities.

  • D

    dictionary attack

    A dictionary attack is a method of breaking into a password-protected computer or server by systematically entering every word in a dictionary as a password. A dictionary attack can also be used in an attempt to find the key necessary to decrypt an encrypted message or document.

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