Security laws and ethics Definitions

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  • B

    black hat

    Black hat refers to a hacker who breaks into a computer system or network with malicious intent.

  • C

    CALEA (Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act)

    CALEA (Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act) is a United States federal law that enables the government to intercept wire and electronic communications and call-identifying information under certain circumstances -- in particular, when it is necessary in order to protect national security.

  • Carnivore

    Carnivore was an Internet surveillance system developed for the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) so that they could monitor the electronic transmissions of criminal suspects. Critics, however, charged that Carnivore did not include appropriate safeguards to prevent misuse and might violate the constitutional rights of the individual. The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) reported in early 2005 that the FBI had replaced Carnivore with other unspecified surveillance software from commercial sources. Such software usually includes a packet sniffer.

  • copyright

    Copyright is a legal term describing ownership of control of the rights to the use and distribution of certain works of creative expression, including books, video, movies, music and computer programs.

  • Cybercrime

    Cybercrime is a criminal act involving a computer or device, such as a mobile phone or tablet; the device may be the target of the crime or used to commit the crime.

  • cyberstalking

    Cyberstalking is a crime in which the attacker harasses a victim using electronic communication, such as e-mail or instant messaging (IM), or messages posted to a Web site or a discussion group.

  • cypherpunk

    Cypherpunk, a term that appeared in Eric Hughes' "A Cypherpunk's Manifesto" in 1993, combines the ideas of cyberpunk, the spirit of individualism in cyberspace, with the use of strong encryption (ciphertext is encrypted text) to preserve privacy.

  • E

    Electrohippies Collective

    The Electrohippies Collective is an international group of hacktivists based in Oxfordshire, England, whose purpose is to express its displeasure with the use of the Internet "as a tool for corporate communications and propaganda.

  • Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (e-signature bill)

    The Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (often referred to as the e-signature bill) specifies that in the United States, the use of a digital signature is as legally valid as a traditional signature written in ink on paper.

  • email spam

    Email spam, or junk email, is unsolicited bulk messages sent through email with commercial, fraudulent or malicious intent.

  • F

    FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974)

    FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974) is legislation that protects the privacy of students' personally identifiable information (PII). The act applies to all educational institutions that receive federal funds.

  • FRCP Rule 41

    FRPC Rule 41 is the part of the United States Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure that covers the search and seizure of physical and digital evidence.

  • H

    hacktivism

    Hacktivism is the act of hacking, or breaking into a computer system, for a politically or socially motivated purpose.

  • HSPD-7 (Homeland Security Presidential Directive No. 7)

    HSPD-7 (Homeland Security Presidential Directive No. 7) was a directive issued by U.S. President George W. Bush in December, 2003 that updated policies intended to protect the country from terrorist attacks. This directive superseded the earlier PDD-63 (Presidential Decision Directive No. 63) issued by President Clinton in May of 1998.

  • I

    I-SPY Act -- Internet Spyware Prevention Act of 2005 (H.R. 744)

    The I-SPY Act, formally known as the Internet Spyware Prevention Act of 2005 (H.R. 744), is a bill in the U.S. Congress that would criminalize the unauthorized use of spyware, phishing, and other methods of using the Internet to obtain sensitive personal information without someone's knowledge and consent.

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