Security compliance Definitions

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  • A

    Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

    The Advanced Encryption Standard, or AES, is a symmetric block cipher used by the U.S. government to protect classified information and is implemented in software and hardware throughout the world to encrypt sensitive data.

  • Automated Clearing House (ACH)

    Automated Clearing House (ACH) is a secure payment transfer system that connects all U.S. financial institutions.

  • C

    cardholder data (CD)

    Cardholder data (CD) refers to the primary account number (PAN) of a payment card belonging to a cardholder, along with any of the following data types: cardholder name, expiration date or service code (a three- or four-digit number coded onto the magnetic-stripe that specifies acceptance requirements and limitations for a magnetic-stripe-read transaction).

  • cardholder data environment (CDE)

    A cardholder data environment or CDE is a computer system or networked group of IT systems that processes, stores and/or transmits cardholder data or sensitive payment authentication data, as well as any component that directly connects to or supports this network.

  • checksum

    A checksum is a count of the number of bits in a transmission unit that is included with the unit so that the receiver can check to see whether the same number of bits arrived.

  • Class C2

    Class C2 is a security rating established by the U.S. National Computer Security Center (NCSC) and granted to products that pass Department of Defense (DoD) Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC) tests.

  • COBIT

    COBIT  is a framework for developing, implementing, monitoring and improving information technology (IT) governance and management practices.

  • cypherpunk

    Cypherpunk, a term that appeared in Eric Hughes' "A Cypherpunk's Manifesto" in 1993, combines the ideas of cyberpunk, the spirit of individualism in cyberspace, with the use of strong encryption (ciphertext is encrypted text) to preserve privacy.

  • D

    Data Encryption Standard (DES)

    The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is an outdated symmetric-key method of data encryption.

  • F

    FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974)

    FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974) is legislation that protects the privacy of students' personally identifiable information (PII). The act applies to all educational institutions that receive federal funds.

  • H

    HIPAA business associate

    As defined by the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), a business associate is any organization or person working in association with or providing services to a covered entity who handles or discloses Personal Health Information (PHI) or Personal Health Records (PHR).

  • I

    Information Awareness Office (IAO)

    Created in response to the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, the Information Awareness Office (IAO) is a branch of the United States Defense Advanced Research Agency (DARPA) that aims to gather massive amounts of intelligence through electronic sources in order to help avert terrorist acts in the future.

  • information signature

    To fight terrorism, the Information Awareness Office (IAO) of the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is planning to develop a system that uses a super database of recorded online transactions and analytical programming that will identify what is referred to as the information signature of a terrorist or terrorist activity before harm can be done.

  • J

    journaling file system

    A journaling file system is a fault-resilient file system in which data integrity is ensured because updates to directories and bitmaps are constantly written to a serial log on disk before the original disk log is updated.

  • K

    Kermit

    Kermit is a popular file transfer and management protocol and suite of communications software programs with advantages over existing Internet protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and Telnet.

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