Information Security Definitions

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  • A

    antispoofing

    Antispoofing is a technique for countering spoofing attacks on a computer network.

  • antivirus software (antivirus program)

    Antivirus software is a class of program designed to prevent, detect and remove malware infections on individual computing devices, networks and IT systems.

  • application blacklisting

    Application blacklisting, sometimes just referred to as blacklisting, is a network administration practice used to prevent the execution of undesirable programs.  Such programs include not only those known to contain security threats or vulnerabilities but also those that are deemed inappropriate within a given organization. Blacklisting is the method used by most antivirus programs, intrusion prevention/detection systems and spam filters.

  • application whitelisting

    Application whitelisting is the practice of identifying applications that have been deemed safe for execution and restricting all other applications from running.

  • asymmetric cryptography (public key cryptography)

    Asymmetric cryptography, also called public key cryptography, uses a pair of numerical keys that are mathematically related to encrypt and decrypt data.

  • attack vector

    An attack vector is a path or means by which a hacker (or cracker) can gain access to a computer or network server in order to deliver a payload or malicious outcome.

  • authentication

    Authentication is the process of determining whether someone or something is, in fact, who or what it is declared to be.

  • authentication factor

    An authentication factor is a category of credential used for identity verification. The three most common categories are often described as something you know (the knowledge factor), something you have (the possession factor) and something you are (the inherence factor).

  • authentication server

    An authentication server is an application that facilitates authentication of an entity that attempts to access a network...(Continued)

  • authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA)

    Authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) is a framework for intelligently controlling access to computer resources, enforcing policies, auditing usage, and providing the information necessary to bill for services.

  • Automated Clearing House (ACH)

    Automated Clearing House (ACH) is a secure payment transfer system that connects all U.S. financial institutions.

  • Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS)

    The Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is a biometric identification (ID) methodology that uses digital imaging technology to obtain, store, and analyze fingerprint data.

  • B

    backdoor (computing)

    A backdoor is a means to access a computer system or encrypted data that bypasses the system's customary security mechanisms.

  • backscatter body scanning

    Backscatter body scanning is an X-ray-based technology that yields a high-resolution image of a person's body beneath their clothing and reveals concealed objects... (Continued)

  • barnacle

    In a computer, a barnacle is unwanted programming, such as adware or spyware, that is downloaded and installed along with a user-requested program.

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