The sophisticated business-to-business interactions occurring at a service level with service-oriented architectures pose a major challenge to security.
You don't go SOA to be more secure; you go SOA for the sake of efficiency and integration, standardization and code reuse. The returns are tantalizing, but like any other development scenario where a rush-to-market supersedes security, the results could be disastrous, experts say.
"There are definitely some positives, but there are some gotchas too," said Diana Kelley, vice president and service director with Burton Group.
Sun Microsystems, for example has open-sourced most of its Access Manager code, including single sign-on, authentication, federation and policy features to help developers build in security from the outset of a project. Platform vendors like IBM sell customers on SOA security at the management level via Tivoli Identity Manager, Tivoli Access Manager for e-business and Tivoli Federated Identity Manager.
"SOA makes you focus on security in a different way because every service you create could be used in a variety of ways by a variety of clients. You need to think about securing [services] from the point of who can access it and what functions they can perform," said Kevin Schmidt, Sun's director of product management for SOA and business integration.
"When you SOA-enable an application, you expose a Web service from the data layer, pieces of business logic, and you expose an interface layer. All of a sudden there are lots of new access points to that app you have to secure," said Ian Goldsmith, vice president of product marketing with SOA Software. "That's the big issue for Web services. Standards are great and make it easy to integrate, but they're bad because they make it easy to access services. You have to figure out how to best secure those new access points you've created."
Since most Web services developed for an SOA are exchanged in XML, there are threats there to consider too, including an inadvertent denial of service caused by shoddy coding or the transmission of oversized messages, the manipulation of an XML schema or the injection of malicious code. Most attacks on XML are theoretical, experts say, yet a healthy XML firewall market exists. Vendors such as Forum Systems, Layer 7 Technologies, Vordel, IBM and others have positioned themselves as network perimeter tools that ensure authentication requests. They can also inspect XML content and prevent the transmission of malicious or sensitive content, something traditional firewalls cannot do.
"In a distributed environment, you still need to authenticate users and deploy access controls," said Jahan Moreh, chief security architect with Sigaba. "Now, you have to do it with more insight toward XML and Web services and such."