Expert: State-sponsored risk 'going up like crazy'

Hacker Tools and Techniques: Underground Sites and Hacking Groups

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  • Rescator

    Rescator is the name of an underground online forum which allegedly sold credit card data stolen from customers who shopped at the United States discount retail chain, Target.  

  • domain fluxing

    Domain fluxing is a technique used by botnet operators for their command-and-control infrastructures to avoid detection by security technologies and researchers attempting to shut their botnets down. 

  • bug bounty program

    A bug bounty program, also called a hacker bounty program or vulnerability rewards program (VRP), is a crowdsourcing initiative that rewards individuals for finding a software bug and reporting it to the organization offering a monetary reward. 

  • cold boot attack

    A cold boot attack is a process for obtaining unauthorized access to encryption keys stored in the dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips of a computer system. 

  • device attack

    A device attack is an exploit in which the attacker takes advantage of a vulnerable device to gain network access. 

  • differential power analysis (DPA)

    A differential power analysis (DPA) attack is an exploit based on analysing the correlation between the electricity usage of a chip in a smart card and the encryption key it contains. 

  • voluntary botnet

    A voluntary botnet is a distributed network of computers whose processing power is harnessed to carry out a political or socially-motivated denial of service (DoS) attack. 

  • TDL-4 (TDSS or Alureon)

    TDL-4 is sophisticated malware that facilitates the creation and maintenance of a botnet.  The program is the fourth generation of the TDL malware, which was itself based on an earlier malicious program known as TDSS or Alureon. 

  • differential power analysis (DPA)2

    A differential power analysis (DPA) attack is an exploit based on analysing the correlation between the electricity usage of a chip in a smart card and the encryption key it contains. 

  • privilege escalation attack

    A privilege escalation attack is a type of network intrusion that takes advantage of programming errors or design flaws to grant the attacker elevated access to the network and its associated data and applications.