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There are two ways to access information: Physical, being on the computer which has the information and electronic, being on another station through hacking or other relatad process.
The first problem could be solved several ways:
Locate the workstation where it it visible but not in an active area where everyone can pass by or stand about passing time.
Physically lock out the device.
Use electronic passwords, etc.
Code and hide important files on unexpected "program files," give them numeral designations instead of phonetic names, and add .exe or .gif, etc. filenames to further wayward unexpected visitors.
Store important files on rewritable CDs instead of the hard drive, and keep them a safe place.
For Net hackers:
It is possible to install a toggle switch to the telephone/modem line so that the computer will only be accessible to the Net if this switch is on.
This switch also doubles as a panic button, should you sense an unauthorized up or download. Although this switch is a useless defense against sleeper programs that send out information the moment you go online (that's another problem), this will give you a chance to correct for such probability before going in.
You may want to install a timer to this switch so that the computer may become available on the Net for a certain span of time, which only you will know of.
Use this with other appropriate electronic firewalls and counter measures to increase your security.
Know your programs/software well. Any file not related or used should be immediately deleted.
Record a tree of your system and counter check this record every once in awhile to help identify rogue files. Be especially aware of bytes used.