Trusted computing systems rely on multiple layers of security throughout the entire stack, which are described in the Orange Book, a common nickname for the "Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria" published by the U.S. Department of Defense. These systems have historically been expensive, not necessarily cutting-edge and are used only in government or high-security environments. Significant formal testing is required to ensure these systems' security.
Modern systems were built based on the experiences of developing these trusted computer systems, but outside of the trusted platform module, they do not share many of the same principles. Trusted systems were designed to disallow one process on a system from accessing the memory or hardware resources used by other processes as a method of resisting a side-channel attack.
This side-channel attack on the CPU cache and memory management unit can also be used against virtual machines and cloud providers.
ASLR has been the focus of many attacks, and new protections have been implemented to address this. The Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam researchers have been working with CPU manufacturers to come up with CPU updates that would make them more resistant to these types of attacks.
Unfortunately, the researchers also stated that ASLR is fundamentally insecure, and that any fixes to this side-channel attack cost too much in terms of performance and are, therefore, impractical.
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