What's the difference between two-factor authentication and multifactor authentication? I've seen both terms used,...
but the specifics are still a bit unclear. What's the better option in terms of securing devices and systems?
Each of these authentication frameworks uses more than a simple username/password scheme to identify an individual, but they go about it in different ways. Two-factor authentication (2FA) uses a single authentication step where the individual authenticates with something he knows, for example a login name, and something he has, such as a biometric component -- like retinal scans, fingerprints or voice recognition -- or an assigned 2FA token issued by the organization. For example, when I log onto my workstation it first prompts me for my login name, then prompts for the number showing on my hard token that I have on my person. If both match my login data, then I can then access my files.
Multifactor authentication (MFA) can include both 2FA and non-2FA credentials, but its major distinguishing factor is that it is a multi-authentication process. Using the same example from above, when I log onto my workstation it prompts me for my login name, and then prompts for the number showing on my hard token. I am then prompted to enter a number that is texted to my mobile phone. If the information entered matches my login data I can then access my files. In reality, instead of working in conjunction with a 2FA credential, more often than not MFA is used with a simple username and password, and the number from a text message to a mobile phone, or some other non-2FA information such as secret question responses, typing in text garbled on an image, picking an image that the user previously selected in another session, or entering additional account information.
MFA and 2FA require something you know and something you have to authenticate, and are considered even when it comes to security. However, information like answers to a secret question, is easier for attackers to discover or guess, thanks to the Internet of Things, social media and other potential sources of data leaks, so 2FA is considered more secure. But the bigger question to ask when deciding whether to use 2FA or MFA is which is more easily supported by your applications and infrastructure? If the applications you wish to protect only support one or the other then the answer is quite clear: use the one supported. If the applications can support both, 2FA would be the preferred method since the user only has to perform one authentication event. If the applications support neither, then it might be necessary to recode the application. Regardless of which method you choose, both will require some level of registration process changes, and of course the end users will need to be trained on how to use the new authentication method and how to seek help should they run into an issue logging in.
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