Claims-based identity is a means of authenticating an end user, application or device to another system in a way that abstracts the entity's specific information while providing data that authorizes it for appropriate and relevant interactions.
Deprovisioning is the process of removing access to a system from an end user who will no longer be utilizing that system.
An orphan account, also referred to as an orphaned account, is a user account that can provide access to corporate systems, services and applications but does not have a valid owner.
Single sign-on (SSO) is a session and user authentication service that permits an end user to enter one set of login credentials (such as a name and password) and be able to access multiple applications. Google, LinkedIn, Twitter and Facebook offer popular SSO services that allow an end user to log into third-party applications with their social media authentication credentials.
In a Windows environment, a user profile is a record of user-specific data that define the user's working environment.