Application attacks Definitions

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  • A

    application blacklisting

    Application blacklisting, sometimes just referred to as blacklisting, is a network administration practice used to prevent the execution of undesirable programs.  Such programs include not only those known to contain security threats or vulnerabilities but also those that are deemed inappropriate within a given organization. Blacklisting is the method used by most antivirus programs, intrusion prevention/detection systems and spam filters.

  • B

    buffer overflow

    A buffer overflow occurs when a program attempts to write more data to a fixed length block of memory, or buffer, than the buffer is allocated to hold. Buffer overflow exploits may enable remote execution of malicious code or denial of service attacks.

  • C

    cache poisoning (DNS poisoning, web cache poisoning)

    Cache poisoning is an attack vector that exploits the way domain name system (DNS) clients and web servers improve performance by saving old responses for a specified period of time in a temporary storage area called cache.

  • cross-site scripting (XSS)

    Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of injection security attack in which an attacker injects data, such as a malicious script, into content from otherwise trusted websites.

  • cyberterrorism

    According to the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, cyberterrorism is any 'premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data which results in violence against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents.'

  • D

    denial-of-service attack

    A denial-of-service attack is a security event that occurs when an attacker prevents legitimate users from accessing specific computer systems, devices, services or other IT resources.

  • dictionary attack

    A dictionary attack is a method of breaking into a password-protected computer or server by systematically entering every word in a dictionary as a password. A dictionary attack can also be used in an attempt to find the key necessary to decrypt an encrypted message or document.

  • directory harvest attack (DHA)

    A directory harvest attack (DHA) is an attempt to determine the valid e-mail addresses associated with an e-mail server so that they can be added to a spam database.

  • distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack

    A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is an attack in which multiple compromised computer systems attack a target, such as a server, website or other network resource, and cause a denial of service for users of the targeted resource.

  • I

    IP Spoofing

    IP spoofing is the crafting of Internet Protocol (IP) packets with a source IP address that has been modified to impersonate another computer system, or to hide the identity of the sender, or both.

  • J

    JavaScript hijacking

    JavaScript hijacking is a technique that an attacker can use to read sensitive data from a vulnerable Web application, particularly one using Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML)... (Continued)

  • jolt

    On the Internet, jolt is a denial of service (DoS) attack caused by a very large ICMP packet that is fragmented in such a way that the targeted machine is unable to reassemble it for use.

  • P

    payload (computing)

    In computing, a payload is the carrying capacity of a packet or other transmission data unit. The term has its roots in the military and is often associated with the capacity of executable malicious code  to do damage. Technically, the payload of a specific packet or other protocol data unit (PDU) is the actual transmitted data sent by communicating endpoints.

  • ping of death

    On the Internet, ping of death is a denial of service (DoS) attack caused by an attacker deliberately sending an IP packet larger than the 65,536 bytes allowed by the IP protocol.

  • R

    Rowhammer

    Rowhammer is a vulnerability in commodity dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips that allows an attacker to exploit devices with DRAM memory by repeatedly accessing (hammering) a row of memory until it causes bit flips and transistors in adjacent rows of memory reverse their binary state: ones turn into zeros and vice versa.

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