Security laws and ethics Definitions

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  • B

    black hat

    Black hat refers to a hacker who breaks into a computer system or network with malicious intent. A black hat hacker may exploit security vulnerabilities for monetary gain; to steal or destroy private data; or to alter, disrupt or shut down websites and networks.

  • C

    CALEA (Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act)

    CALEA (Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act) is a United States federal law that enables the government to intercept wire and electronic communications and call-identifying information under certain circumstances -- in particular, when it is necessary in order to protect national security.

  • Carnivore

    Carnivore was an Internet surveillance system developed for the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) so that they could monitor the electronic transmissions of criminal suspects. Critics, however, charged that Carnivore did not include appropriate safeguards to prevent misuse and might violate the constitutional rights of the individual. The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) reported in early 2005 that the FBI had replaced Carnivore with other unspecified surveillance software from commercial sources. Such software usually includes a packet sniffer.

  • copyright

    Copyright is a legal term describing ownership of control of the rights to the use and distribution of certain works of creative expression, including books, video, movies, music and computer programs.

  • cyber attribution

    Cyber attribution is the process of tracking, identifying and laying blame on the perpetrator of a cyberattack or other hacking exploit.

  • Cybercrime

    Cybercrime is any criminal activity that involves a computer, networked device or a network.

  • cyberextortion

    Cyberextortion is a crime involving an attack or threat of an attack coupled with a demand for money or some other response in return for stopping or remediating the attack.

  • cyberstalking

    Cyberstalking is a crime in which the attacker harasses a victim using electronic communication, such as e-mail or instant messaging (IM), or messages posted to a Web site or a discussion group.

  • cyberterrorism

    According to the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, cyberterrorism is any 'premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data which results in violence against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents.'

  • cypherpunk

    Cypherpunk, a term that appeared in Eric Hughes' "A Cypherpunk's Manifesto" in 1993, combines the ideas of cyberpunk, the spirit of individualism in cyberspace, with the use of strong encryption (ciphertext is encrypted text) to preserve privacy.

  • E

    Electrohippies Collective

    The Electrohippies Collective is an international group of hacktivists based in Oxfordshire, England, whose purpose is to express its displeasure with the use of the Internet "as a tool for corporate communications and propaganda.

  • Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (e-signature bill)

    The Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (often referred to as the e-signature bill) specifies that in the United States, the use of a digital signature is as legally valid as a traditional signature written in ink on paper.

  • email spam

    Email spam, or junk email, is unsolicited bulk messages sent through email with commercial, fraudulent or malicious intent.

  • F

    FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974)

    FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974) is legislation that protects the privacy of students' personally identifiable information (PII). The act applies to all educational institutions that receive federal funds.

  • FRCP Rule 41

    FRPC Rule 41 is the part of the United States Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure that covers the search and seizure of physical and digital evidence.

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