An attack vector is a path or means by which a hacker (or cracker) can gain access to a computer or network server in order to deliver a payload or malicious outcome.
A backdoor is a means to access a computer system or encrypted data that bypasses the system's customary security mechanisms.
An ethical worm is a program that automates network-based distribution of security patches for known vulnerabilities.
Google Project Zero is a security research unit within Google Inc.
The Oracle Critical Patch Update (CPU) is an ongoing series of regularly issued fixes for security flaws in products made by or maintained by software giant Oracle Corp.
Patch Tuesday is the unofficial name of Microsoft's scheduled release of the newest security fixes for its Windows operating system and related software applications, as detailed in the Windows Security Updates Guide.
TACACS (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System) is an older authentication protocol common to UNIX networks that allows a remote access server to forward a user's logon password to an authentication server to determine whether access can be allowed to a given system.
A zero-day vulnerability, also known as a computer zero day, is a flaw in software, hardware or firmware that is unknown to the party or parties responsible for patching or otherwise fixing the flaw.