Digital certificates Definitions

  • A

    authentication server

    An authentication server is an application that facilitates authentication of an entity that attempts to access a network...(Continued)

  • C

    certificate authority (CA)

    A certificate authority (CA) is a trusted entity that issues digital certificates, which are data files used to cryptographically link an entity with a public key.

  • Certificate Revocation List (CRL)

    A Certificate Revocation List (CRL) is a list of digital certificates that have been revoked by the issuing Certificate Authority and should not be trusted. Web browsers use CRLs to determine whether a website's digital certificate is still valid and trustworthy.

  • cipher

    In cryptology, the discipline concerned with the study of cryptographic algorithms, a cipher is an algorithm for encrypting and decrypting data.

  • conditional access (CA)

    Conditional access (CA) is a technology used to control access to digital television (DTV) services to authorized users by encrypting the transmitted programming.

  • cryptography

    Cryptography is a method of protecting information and communications through the use of codes so that only those for whom the information is intended can read and process it.

  • cryptology

    Cryptology is the mathematics, such as number theory, and the application of formulas and algorithms, that underpin cryptography and cryptanalysis.

  • D

    digital certificate

    A digital certificate, also known as a public key certificate, is used to cryptographically link ownership of a public key with the entity that owns it.

  • digital signature

    A digital signature is a mathematical technique used to validate the authenticity and integrity of a message, software or digital document.

  • Digital Signature Standard (DSS)

    Digital Signature Standard (DSS) is the digital signature algorithm(DSA) developed by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) to generate a digital signature for the authenticationof electronic documents.

  • E

    Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (e-signature bill)

    The Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (often referred to as the e-signature bill) specifies that in the United States, the use of a digital signature is as legally valid as a traditional signature written in ink on paper.

  • H

    HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection)

    HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection) is a specified method from Intel for protecting copyrighted digital entertainment content that uses the Digital Video Interface (DVI) by encrypting its transmission between the video source and the digital display (receiver).

  • hijacking

    Hijacking is a type of network security attack in which the attacker takes control of a communication - just as an airplane hijacker takes control of a flight - between two entities and masquerades as one of them.

  • I

    IPsec (Internet Protocol Security)

    IPsec, also known as the Internet Protocol Security or IP Security protocol, defines the architecture for security services for IP network traffic.

  • K

    key

    In cryptography, a key is a variable value that is applied using an algorithm to a string or block of unencrypted text to produce encrypted text, or to decrypt encrypted text.

  • M

    MD2

    MD2 is an earlier, 8-bit version of MD5, an algorithm used to verify data integrity through the creation of a 128-bit message digest from data input (which may be a message of any length) that is claimed to be as unique to that specific data as a fingerprint is to the specific individual.

  • MD4

    MD4 is an earlier version of MD5, an algorithm used to verify data integrity through the creation of a 128-bit message digest from data input (which may be a message of any length) that is claimed to be as unique to that specific data as a fingerprint is to the specific individual.

  • MD5

    The MD5 hashing algorithm is a one-way cryptographic function that accepts a message of any length as input and returns as output a fixed-length digest value to be used for authenticating the original message.

  • N

    nonrepudiation

    Nonrepudiation is the assurance that someone cannot deny something, such as the receipt of a message or the authenticity of a statement or contract... (Continued)

  • O

    one-time pad

    In cryptography, a one-time pad is a system in which a private key generated randomly is used only once to encrypt a message that is then decrypted by the receiver using a matching one-time pad and key.

  • P

    PKI (public key infrastructure)

    A public key infrastructure (PKI) supports the distribution and identification of public encryption keys, enabling users and computers to both securely exchange data over networks such as the Internet and verify the identity of the other party.

  • Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)

    Pretty Good Privacy or PGP is a popular program used to encrypt and decrypt email over the Internet, as well as authenticate messages with digital signatures and encrypted stored files.

  • private key

    A private key, also known as a secret key, is a variable in cryptography that is used with an algorithm to encrypt and decrypt code.

  • public key

    In cryptography, a public key is a value provided by some designated authority as an encryption key that, combined with a private key derived from the public key, can be used to effectively encrypt messages and digital signatures.

  • public key certificate

    A public key certificate is a digitally signed document that serves to validate the sender's authorization and name.

  • Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS)

    The Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) are a set of intervendor standard protocols for making possible secure information exchange on the Internet using a public key infrastructure (PKI).

  • R

    registration authority (RA)

    A registration authority (RA) is an authority in a network that verifies user requests for a digital certificate and tells the certificate authority (CA) to issue it.

  • RSA algorithm (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman)

    The RSA algorithm is the basis of a cryptosystem -- a suite of cryptographic algorithms that are used for specific security services or purposes -- which enables public key encryption and is widely used to secure sensitive data, particularly when it is being sent over an insecure network such as the internet.

  • S

    secret key algorithm (symmetric algorithm)

    A secret key algorithm (sometimes called a symmetric algorithm) is a cryptographic algorithm that uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt data.

  • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)

    Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a networking protocol designed for securing connections between web clients and web servers over an insecure network, such as the internet.

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