As network borders become increasingly difficult to define, and as pressure mounts on organizations to allow many different devices to connect to the corporate network, network access control is seeing a significant resurgence in deployment.
Often positioned as a security tool for the bring your own device (BYOD) and internet of things (IoT) era, network access control (NAC) is also increasingly becoming a very useful tool in network management, acting as a gatekeeper to the network. It has moved away from being a system that blocks all access unless a device is recognized, and is now more permissive, allowing for fine-grained control over what access is permitted based on policies defined by the organization. By supporting wired, wireless and remote connections, NAC can play a valuable role in securing all of these connections.
Once an organization has determined that NAC will be useful to its security profile, it's time for it to consider the different purchasing criteria for choosing the right NAC product for its environment. NAC vendors provide a dizzying array of information, and it can be difficult to differentiate between their products.
When you're ready to buy NAC products and begin researching your options -- and especially when speaking to vendors to determine the best choice for your organization -- consider the questions and features outlined in this article.
NAC device coverage: Agent or agentless?
NAC products should support all devices that may connect to an organization's network. This includes many different configurations of PCs, Macs, Linux devices, smartphones, tablets and IoT-enabled devices. This is especially true in a BYOD environment.
NAC agents are small pieces of software installed on a device that provide detailed information about the device -- such as its hardware configuration, installed software, running services, antivirus versions and connected peripherals. Some can even monitor keystrokes and internet history, though that presents privacy concerns. NAC agents can either run scans as a one-off -- dissolvable -- or periodically via a persistently installed agent.
If the NAC product uses agents, it's important that they support the widest variety of devices possible, and that other devices can use agentless NAC if required. In many cases, devices will require the NAC product to support agentless implementation to detect BYOD and IoT-enabled devices and devices that can't support NAC agents, such as printers and closed-circuit television equipment. Agentless NAC allows a device to be scanned by the network access controller and be given the correct designation based on the class of the device. This is achieved with aggressive port scans and operating system version detection.
Agentless NAC is a key component in a BYOD environment, and most organizations should look at this as must-have when buying NAC products. Of course, gathering information via an agent will provide more information on the device, but it's not viable on a modern network that needs to support many different devices.
Does the NAC product integrate with existing software and authentication?
This is a key consideration before you buy an NAC product, as it is important to ensure it supports the type of authentication that best integrates with your organization's network. The best NAC products should offer a variety of choices: 802.1x -- through the use of a RADIUS server -- Active Directory, LDAP or Oracle. NAC will also need to integrate with the way an organization uses the network. If the staff uses a specific VPN product to connect remotely, for example, it is important to ensure the NAC system can integrate with it.
Supporting many different security systems that do not integrate with one another can cause significant overhead. A differentiator between the different NAC products is not only what type of products they integrate with, but also how many systems exist within each category.
Consider the following products that an organization may want to integrate with, and be sure that your chosen NAC product supports the products already in place:
3. Advanced threat detection
Does the NAC product aid in regulatory compliance?
NAC can help achieve compliance with many different regulations, such as the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, HIPAA, International Organization for Standardization 27002 -- ISO 27002 -- and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Each of these regulations stipulates certain controls regarding network access that should be implemented, especially around BYOD, IoT and rogue devices connecting to the network.
By continually monitoring network connections and performing actions based on the policies set by an organization, NAC can help with compliance with many of these regulations. These policies can, in many cases, be configured to match those of the compliance regulations mentioned above. So, when buying NAC products, be sure to have compliance in mind and to select a vendor that can aid in this process -- be it through specific knowledge in its support team or through predefined policies that can be tweaked to provide the compliance required for your individual business.
What is the true cost of buying an NAC product?
The price of NAC products can be the most significant consideration, depending on the budget you have available for procurement. Most NAC products are charged per endpoint (device) connected to the network. On a large network, this can quickly become a substantial cost. There are often also hidden costs with NAC products that must be considered when assessing your purchase criteria.
Consider the following costs before you buy an NAC product:
1. Add-on modules. Does the basic price give organizations all the information and control they need? NAC products often have hidden costs, in that the basic package does not provide all the functionality required. The additional cost of add-on modules can run into tens of thousands of dollars on a large network. Be sure to look at what the basic NAC package includes and investigate how the organization will be using the NAC system. Specific integrations may be an additional cost. Is there extra functionality that will be required in the NAC product to provide all the benefits required?
2. Upfront costs. Are there any installation charges or initial training that will be required? Be sure to factor these into the calculation, on top of the price per endpoint -- of course.
3. Support costs. What level of support does the organization require? Does it need one-off or regular training, or does it require 24/7 technical support? This can add significantly to the cost of NAC products.
4. Staff time. While not a direct cost of buying NAC products, consider how much monitoring an NAC system requires. Time will need to be set aside not only to learn the NAC system, but to manage it on an ongoing basis and respond to alerts. Even the best NAC systems will require staff to be trained so if problems occur, there will be people available to address the issues.
NAC product support: What's included?
Support from the NAC manufacturer is an important consideration from the perspective of the success of the rollout and assessing the cost. Some of the questions that should be asked are:
- What does the basic support package include?
- What is the cost of extended support?
- Is support available at all times?
- Does the vendor have a significant presence in the organization's region? For example, some NAC providers are primarily U.S.-based, and if an organization is based in EMEA, it may not provide the same level of support.
- Is on-site training available and included in the license?
Support costs can significantly drive up the cost of deployment and should be assessed early in the procurement process.
What to know before you buy an NAC system
When it comes to purchasing criteria for network access control products, it is important that not only is an NAC system capable of detecting all the devices connected to an organization's network, but that it integrates as seamlessly as possible. The cost of attempting to shoehorn existing processes and systems into an NAC product that does not offer integration can quickly skyrocket, even if the initial cost is on the cheaper side.
NAC should also work for the business, not against it. In the days when NAC products only supported 802.1x authentication and blocked everything by default, it was seen as an annoyance that stopped legitimate network authentication requests. But, nowadays, a good NAC system provides seamless connections for employees, third parties and contractors alike -- and to the correct area of the network to which they have access. It should also aid in regulatory compliance, an issue all organizations need to deal with now.
Assessing NAC products comes down to the key questions highlighted above. They are designed to help organizations determine what type of NAC product is right for them, and accordingly aid them in narrowing their choices down to the vendor that provides the product that most closely matches those criteria.
Once seldom used by organizations, endpoint protection is now a key part of IT security, and NAC products have a significant part to play in that. From a hacker's perspective, well-implemented and managed NAC products can mean the difference between a full network attack and total attack failure.